The student experiences difficulty learning and using academic skills in specific areas such as decoding words, reading comprehension, spelling, written expression, or mathematics skills for at least 6 months despite the provision of interventions that target those difficulties.
The student’s level of specific academic skill is substantially below what would be expected given the student’s chronological age. This significantly interferes with academic performance or other areas of daily living.
The learning difficulties began during school-age years.
The learning difficulties are not better accounted for by other individual factors such as the presence of an intellectual disability, inadequate exposure to academic instruction in the language of proficiency, psychosocial adversity, or other mental or neurological disorders.
- Sound and syllable repetitions (part-word repetitions) (ba – baby)
- Sound prolongations (sometimes)
- Broken words (pauses within a word) (Ta – table)
- Audible or silent blocking (Filled or unfilled pauses in speech) (I like to – go home)
- Circumlocutions (word substitutions to avoid a problematic word)
- Words pronounced with an excess of physical tension Monosyllabic whole-word repetitions (“I-I-I see him”)
A group of disorders affecting the development of movement and posture, often accompanied by disturbances of sensation, perception, cognition, and behavior. It results from damage to the fetal or infant brain.
A heterogeneous group of non-progressive motor disorders caused by chronic brain injuries that originate in the prenatal period, perinatal period, or first few years of life. The four major subtypes are spastic, athetoid, ataxic, and mixed cerebral palsy, with spastic forms being the most common. The motor disorder may range from difficulties with fine motor control to severe spasticity (see muscle spasticity) in all limbs. Spastic diplegia (little disease) is the most common subtype, and is characterized by spasticity that is more prominent in the legs than in the arms. Pathologically, this condition may be associated with leukomalacia, periventricular. (from dev med child neurol 1998 aug;40(8):520-7).Birth injury of the brain nerve that controls body movement.Cerebral palsy is a group of disorders that affect a person’s ability to move and to maintain balance and posture. The disorders appear in the first few years of life. Usually they do not get worse over time. People with cerebral palsy may have difficulty walking. They may also have trouble with tasks such as writing or using scissors. Some have other medical conditions, including seizure disorders or mental impairment. Cerebral palsy happens when the areas of the brain that control movement and posture do not develop correctly or get damaged. Early signs of cerebral palsy usually appear before 3 years of age. Babies with cerebral palsy are often slow to roll over, sit, crawl, smile, or walk. Some babies are born with cerebral palsy; others get it after they are born. There is no cure for cerebral palsy, but treatment can improve the lives of those who have it. Treatment includes medicines, braces, and physical, occupational and speech therapy. Heterogeneous group of non-progressive motor disorders caused by chronic brain injuries that originate in the prenatal period, perinatal period, or first few years of life; the four major subtypes are spastic, athetoid, ataxic, and mixed cerebral palsy, with spastic forms being the most common; the motor disorder may range from difficulties with fine motor control to severe spasticity in all limbs; spastic diplegia (little disease) is the most common subtype, and is characterized by spasticity that is more prominent in the legs than in the arms.