Hyperkinetic diorders always arise early in development, usually in the first 5 years of life. Their chief characteristics are lack of persistence in activities that require cognitive involvement and tendency to move from one activity to another without completing anyone, together with disorganized, ill regulated and excessive activity. These problems usually persist through school years and even into adult life, but many affected individuals show a gradual improvement in activity and attention. The main sub types are: Disturbance of activity and attention, and Hyperkinetic conduct disorder.
Conduct disorders are characterised by a repetitive and persistent pattern of dissocial, aggressive or defiant conduct. Such behaviour, when at its most extreme for the individual, should amount to major voilations of age appropriate social expectations and is therefore more severe than ordinary childish mischief or adolescent rebelliousness. Isolated dissocial or criminal acts are not in themselves ground for the diagnosis, which implies an enduring pattern of behaviour. Important sub types are: Conduct disorder confined to the family context, Unsocialized conduct disorder, Socialised conduct disorder, and Oppositional defiant disorder
Mixed disorders of conduct and emotion:
This group of disorders is characterized by the combination of persistently aggressive , dissocial, or defiant behaviour with overt and marked symptoms of depression, anxiety or other emotional upsets.
Emotional disorders with onset specific to childhood:
In child psychiatry a differentiation has been made between emotional disorders specific to childhood and adolescence and adult type neurotic disorders. Some of the important sub types are: Seperation anxiety disorder of childhood, Phobic anxiety disorder of childhood, Social anxiety disorder of childhood, Sibling rivalry disorder, and Other childhood emotional disorders.
Disorders of social functioning with onset specific to childhood and adolescence:
This is somewhat common heterogenous group of disorders, which have in common abnormalities in social functioning that begin during the developmental period which are not primarily characterized by an apparently constitutional social incapacity or deficit that pervades all areas of functioning. Some of the important subtypes are: Elective mutism, Reactive attachment disorder of childhood, and Disinhibited attachment disorder of childhood.
A tic is an involantary, rapid recurrent, non rythmic motor movement or vocal production, that is of sudden onset and sets no apparent purpose. Some of the main subtypes are: Transient tic disorder, Chronic motor tic or vocal tic, and Tourette syndrome (combined motor and vocal tic)
Other behaviour and emotional disorders with onset usually occuring in childhood and adolescence:
This rubric comprises a heterogenous group of disorders that share the characteristic of set in childhood, some conditions represent well defined syndromes, but others are no more than symptom complexes which lack nosological validity, but which are included because of their frequency and association with psychosocial problems and cannot be incorporated into other syndromes .Some of the subtypes are: Non organic enuresis, Non organic encopresis, Feeding disorder of infancy and childhood, Pica of infancy and childhood, Stereotyped movement disorders, Stuttering , Cluttering, and Other specified behavioural and emotional disorders with onset usually occurring in childhood and adolescence.